A Compilation of 21 tested Electronic Construction Projects and 71 Circuit Ideas This volume Electron. Vol. Page 4. © EFY Enterprises Pvt Ltd. First. Complete Electronics. SELF TEACHING GUIDE WITH PROJECTS. Earl Boysen | Harry Kybett. Book Author ffirs V1 June 14, PM. PDF Drive is. Efy Projects And Ideas - [PDF] [EPUB] Efy Projects And Ideas Want to get Modul Materi Un Fisika Sma Full Bertrand Russell Speaks His.
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Component layout for the PCB shock-absorber fork. Make a few trials to find the optimal position for mounting and fixing the PVC pipe such that the reed switch works smoothly. Once it dries up. Secure the magnet using hot glue or Araldite.
The same reading is again retrieved from the EEPROM when the bike is turned on next time and the readings are updated for each trip. Now you can fix the PVC pipe contraption to the shock-absorber fork using hot glue as shown in Fig. Connect a multimeter. Mark the location on the front Fig. Mount and secure the reed switch using Araldite and cable ties on the plastic handle normally used in emergency lights.
A small circular magnet about 2 cm in diametre. Fix the plastic handle on the half cut PVC pipe using screws. This completes the sensor mounting part.
Fix the magnet to the central drum of the wheel just below the spokes connected to the drum. Rotate the wheel slowly and see whether the reed switch closes when the magnet passes across it. If it does. When the magnet moves away from the reed switch.
Use liberal amount of hot glue to secure it to the pipe. Solder a 60cm two-core wire to the positive and negative terminals inside the switch console. After five seconds. Now start the bike. If such boxes are not available. After programming. The advantage of taking supply from the switch console is that the ignition key controls the power supply to the main unit without having a separate on-off switch. In the first line of the LCD. Testing After all the components are soldered on the PCB.
Mounting arrangement of the unit is shown in Fig. You can use cable ties to accomplish this. The main circuit and the LCD module can be housed in suitable plastic enclosures. For this. These enclosures should have precut slot for easy mounting of the LCD panel. When carrying out this step. Connect the two wires coming from the reed switch and the power supply wires to the main unit.
A protective cover like polythene can be used for the main unit on rainy days. Pin configurations of 5. Circuit of microcontroller-based solar charger success depends mainly on it. It is considered as an indispensable link between the solar panel. In the solar-powered lighting system. Built-in digital voltmeter 0VV range 3. Overcharge protection Fig. Solar Charger for dusk-to-dawn use A s the sources of conventional energy deplete day by day. The microcontroller-based solar charge controller described here has the following features: Solar-powered lighting systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas.
Automatic dusk-to-dawn operation of the load 2. These include solar lanterns. All of them consist of four components: C6 C8 Miscellaneous: The differential analogue voltage input allows increase of the Microcontroller-Based Projects Power-on reset is derived from resistor R1 and capacitor C4.
Deep-discharge protection 7. Low current consumption Fig. Component description is given below. R6-R11 - kilo-ohm R5 - kilo-ohm R12 - ohm Capacitors: C1 C2 C3. A single-side. It is a low-voltage. Serial ADC. Holding RST pin high for two machine cycles. Suitable for W solar panels for 10A load The circuit of the solar charge controller is shown in Fig. The microcontroller monitors the battery voltage with the help of an analogue-to-digital converter.
Microcontroller AT89C is the heart of the circuit.
C7 C4. Low battery lock 8. Highly efficient design based on microcontroller It comprises microcontroller AT89C Switch S2 is used for manual reset. A 12MHz crystal is used for providing the basic clock frequency. LCD and a few discrete components. C9 C5.
Component layout for the PCB The microcontroller needs to know the presence of the solar panel voltage to decide whether the load is to be connected to or disconnected from the battery. Solar panel. Dusk-to-dawn sensor. The peak unloaded voltage output of the solar panel will be around 19 volts. The backlight feature of the LCD makes it readable even in low light conditions. Usually the 8-bit mode of interfacing with a microcontroller requires eleven pins.
The solar energy is converted into electrical energy and stored in a 12V lead-acid battery. Load control. LCD module. The ampere-hour capacity ranges from 5 Ah to Ah. Rechargeable battery. Higher-wattage panels can be used with some modifications to the controller unit. Under normal conditions. It is available in an 8-pin PDIP package and can be interfaced to the microcontroller with only three wires. The solar panel used here is meant to charge a 12V battery and Fig. Flow-chart of the source program the wattage can range from 10 to 40 watts.
When the battery is at full charge Relay RL1 connects the solar panel to the battery through diode D1. A simple sensor circuit is built using a potential divider formed around resistors R8 and R9.
In addition. Charge control. During daytime. A series regulator is inserted between the solar panel and the battery.
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The load current should be limited to 10A. At this stage. The digital voltmeter works up to 20V. In parallel regulation. In this mode. This way. When the voltage reaches When the battery voltage drops below 10 volts.
EFY note. An actualsize. Parallel regulation is preferred in solar field. During this stage. MOFETs are voltage-driven devices that require virtually no drive current. It monitors the input signal from the dusk-to-dawn sensor and activates the load or charging relay RL1 accordingly.
The current and voltage output of a solar panel is governed by the angle of incidence of light. If the unit is switched on without the solar panel connected.
Prior to inserting the programmed microcontroller into the PCB. During charging. After power-on. When the panel voltage falls below the zener diode ZD1 voltage of the dusk-to-dawn sensor.
Construction and testing Pin configurations of transistor BC During lock mode. Circuit description Basically. When the solar panel voltage is present. Before switching on the controller unit. In this project. A small graphic representing the battery status is also displayed on line 2 of the LCD.
Wire the circuit on the PCB. The system status messages are displayed on line 1 of the LCD and the battery voltage is displayed on line 2. To avoid this.
MOV SP. DS 1 VAL2: DS 1 VAL3: DS 1 BUF: DS 1 CNT1: DS 1 CNT2: DS 1 IMG: It is well commented for easy understanding and works as per the flow-chart shown in Fig. There will be slight variation in the voltage displayed because of the tolerance levels of potential-divider resistors in the ADC section and Vref of the ADC being directly connected to VCC the output of has an accuracy of per cent instead of dedicated temperature-compensated voltage reference.
MOV C. JB DYI. A MOV B. B MOV R5. MOV R R3 MOV B. C MOV C. B ADD A. One second delay routine RZ3: MOV R1. MOV B. H2 RET. R5 34 MOV B. ADD A. B MOV R7. R4 MOV B. A ENDD: MOV R0.
QT22 RET. MOV R6. DJNZ R6. DB 04D. QT2 RET. All the bi-directional port pins are programmable as inputs or outputs. The complete system is divided into four sections. R29 - kilo-ohm RR Accurate time-keeping depends on the accuracy of time base used for driving the microcontroller. IC1 Description The pin assignments and main features of the microcontroller are shown in Fig.
The time-keeping section. AT-cut parallel resonant crystal oscillator that is expected to provide a very stable clock. The frequency fosc of the oscillator is internally divided by 2 to get the operating frequency fop. This high-frequency clock source is used to control the sequencing of CPU instructions. The basic function of a timer is the measurement or generation of time-dependant events. Timers usually measure time relative to the internal clock of the microcontroller.
This provides the timing references for timer functions. The programmable timer status and control register TSCR is used for deciding the interrupt rate. It can be programmed to give interrupts after every 16,, 3,, 65,, or , clock cycles. In Table I, the control word is set to provide the interrupts after every 16, cycles. For a 32,MHz crystal, the interrupt period will be 10ms.
Thus, timer interrupts will be generated after every 10 ms Hz.
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That is, interrupts will make 1 second. Now time-keeping becomes very simple. As we are having a precise 1-second time count, a real-time clock can be easily built.
Thus an accurate real-time clock is generated. The input section. For setting the real-time clock and storing operating times, the timer requires to be programmed externally. Data is fed using the keyboard. Press-to-on type keys are interfaced to the microcontroller using an 8-bit priority encoder CD This encoder detects the key-press operation and generates the equivalent 3-bit binary data.
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Its truth table is shown in Table II. The priority encoder is interfaced to port A of the microcontroller. Various keys used in the timer, along with their functions, are described below: Time 4: For setting real time in minutes and hours. Bell 5: Digit Advance 6: The Digit Advance key shifts the decimal point to the right.
Power supply circuit for the school timer Store 7: For storing the data real time or bell time. Delete 3: For deleting a particular bell timing. Here, the figures within parentheses indicate the decimal equivalents of 3-bit binary data from the keyboard. Set and run modes. Data setting is possible only in set mode.
Set mode or run mode can be selected by toggle switch S6. The output section. Seven-segment displays are used for data display. As LEDs are brighter, these have been used in the system. There are two techniques for driving the displays: The first technique works well, but practically it has two problems: By using multiplexed display both the problems can be solved.
In multiplexing only one input is displayed at any given instant. But if you chop or alter inputs fast enough, your eyes see the result as a continuous Fig. Actual-size single-sided PCB for the circuits in Figs 1 and 2 display. With LEDs, only one digit is lighted. This saves a lot of power and also components, making the system economical. Generally, displays are refreshed at a frequency of 50 to Hz.
Here, displays are refreshed at a frequency of Hz after every 10 ms. The display-refreshing program is an interrupt service routine program. As the current persists for a very small time in multiplexed display, it is peaky and can be as high as 40 mA per segment. The decimal point is controlled individually by transistor BC, as 74LS47 does not support the decimal point.
PA0 and PA1 bits of port A are used for controlling the electro-mechanical relay and buzzer, respectively. Power supply and battery backup. A simple rectifier along with zener diode-regulated power supply is used. During power Fig. In this mode the controller draws a very small current. So small Ni-Cd batteries can provide a good backup. Software Freescale offers Integrated Development Environment IDE software for programming its microcontroller and complete development of the system.
The development board comes with Editor, Assembler, and Programmer software to support Freescale's device programmer and software simulator. When you connect the pod to your host computer and target hardware, you can use the actual inputs and outputs of the target system during simulation of the code.
The software for the timer has been so developed that the system becomes as user-friendly as possible. As mentioned earlier, the microcontroller has only 64 byte Microcontroller-Based Projects. Reset 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Basically, the follow- TOF: Timer overflow flag RTIE: Real-time interrupt enable ing functions are per- RTIF: Storing of real time and bell timings. Table II 4. Display of data.
Digit Adv. The operation and logic can be understood from the Assembly language listings. The software is mainly divided into the following modules: When a key is pressed, CD sends the corresponding data. After reading the data, the controller decides on the action. This part of the program is used for displaying the bell operating timings stored in the RAM.
The operating timings are displayed one by one with a delay of 5 seconds between tow consecutive timings. The real time and bell timings are stored using this part of the software. Data is entered digitwise; for example, Data is stored in hour format. Data fed from the keyboard is converted into equivalent hex and stored in RAM.
Here the real time is compared with bell operating time. If the two match, the relay is operated. This part of the software is used for finding out the decimal equivalent of hex data. The microcontroller manipulates the hex data and converts it into BCD format for display. The timer of the microcontroller is initialized to give an interrupt after every 10 ms.
A real-time clock is generated using the interrupt.
Also the display is refreshed during the interrupt service routine. For real-time systems battery backup is very essential, because power failure affects the time keeping.
In interrupt service routine, the availability of power supply is checked. If the power is available, displays are refreshed and the timer operates normally. In this mode only the timer part of the microcontroller remains activated while operations of all other peripherals are suspended.
This considerably reduces the power consumption. When the supply gets restored, the controller starts operating in normal fashion. Operating procedure When the power is switched on, the display shows Two settings are required in the timer: Storing of real time. To store real time, say, The display will.
The stored bell operating timings will be displayed one by one with a delay of 5 seconds between two consecutive timings. Deletion of bell operating timings. For deleting a particular timing. After the fourthdigit. The display will show with no decimal. To select the digit. Checking of bell operating times. The second. The procedure to store bell operating timings is similar to that of setting real time. For checking the bell operating times. Storing of bell timings.
If the number of bell operating timings exceeds This stores the present digit and the next digit is selected as indicated by the decimal pointer.
The time to be stored is Display of real time. Some of the command codes decimal equivalents. Addresses of some of the remotes are shown in Table III. This bit is used to identify whether the button is really pressed or whether an obstacle came in between the IR path of the remote and the IR receiver. These bits are used to calculate and analyse the bit length of the other bits. X1 - V AC primary to 15V. Therefore a maximum of 64 commands can be equipped in an RC5-type remote.
Table II shows how all the commands of an RC5 remote control are encoded. The microcontroller can be programmed for device control using Parts List a normal Philips TV remote control. R6-R29 - 4. The output of the IR demodulator circuit is normally high.
The outputs from the sub-routine are: Address byte. On receipt of the first low-going pulse. Please refer device datasheets for more details. Power supply circuit Button 89C Control byte. Toggle bit.
The addressing range of various peripheral devices is shown in Table I. The LCD is used for displaying real time year. Microcontroller-Based Projects It has an inbuilt lithium battery and can retain stored data for over ten years in the absence of external power.
B and C of A9 and A10 from output pins P2. PPI chip is configured with port A. Higheraddress bits from port P2 of IC1 A8. There is no need of connecting external freewheeling diodes across relays as inbuilt diodes are provided in ULN ICs.
Power supply Fig. The relay-switching data that is output from ports A A step-down transformer rated at 15V AC secondary voltage at mA is used to supply 12V unregulated and 5V regulated power to the circuit.. This data includes month. Transistor T1 acts like a switch for LCD backlight. Bit P1. While most of the circuit requires regulated 5V for its operation. Address locations through are used for storing the 4-byte long password. Thus only locations are available for storing the 5-byte long device data and as such the program for a maximum of only 21 devices out of 24 devices can be stored.
The ripple in the regulator output is filtered by capacitor C The functions of these keys follow: If a wrong passFig. Component layout for the PCB shown in Fig. When it is pressed. When you press this button. Each time you press any of these buttons. Each connector is meant for extending connections to eight relays. Note that the password can be any 4-digit value. If the correct password is entered. Then the program that is residing next to this task moves to the location of the deleted task and the whole memory is refreshed.
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If the memory is not full. The pointer value in memory location FH of DS changes accordingly. Shows the existing device programs that are stored in the memory starting from location H onwards one by one. As the circuit operations depend on the real set time. So use this key very cautiously. You can lock the remote keypad by enabling the child lock.
Takes you to programming of a task. Each time. Deletes the entire programmed data in one stroke. See the example shown above for clarity. Enter the desired data in this format.
U s e d t o change the real time. The monitor program in 89C52 gets the relevant time data time.. That is. When relay contacts across 15 This count value. Thus when the in-circuit re- demultiplexer that senses the output of sistance of preset VR2 is not zero, the IC2 and accordingly activates only one of Working output voltage will be higher than that its 16 outputs in accordance with the When the power is switched on, IC2 re- indicated here.
The phones in parallel and also as a nected to telephone 2. For operation in intercom mode, one and telephone 3 is connected to the ex- Usually a single telephone is con- has to just lift the handset of phone 1 change line.
Before changing over the ex- nected to a telephone line. If another tele- and then press switch S1. As a result, change line to telephone 2, the person at phone is required at some distance, a par- buzzer PZ2 sounds.
Simultaneously, the telephone 1 may inform the person at tele- allel line is taken for connecting the other side tone is heard in the speaker of hand- phone 2 in the intercom mode that he is telephone. In this simple parallel line op- set of phone 1. The person at phone 2 going to changeover the line for use by eration, the main problem is loss of pri- could then lift the handset and start con- him the person at telephone 2.
The resistance remains high when there is no light and the resistance drops as soon as light falls on it. This lessens the voltage at the inverting input and thus the comparator produces a high output which turns a transistor and thus the relay on.
A much more detailed working can be obtained from the original post. This circuit can be used to escape from the nuisance of mobile phone rings when you are at home. This circuit will give a visual indication if placed near a mobile phone even if the ringer is deactivated. Latest Electronics Mini Projects:- 1.
This project, developed using AT89S51 a version of from Atmel with a well-explained circuit diagram and program, controls the water level in a tank by controlling a water pump motor depending on the current water levels. We have tested and verified this circuits functioning in our lab. The program is written in assembly language using the MCS instruction set. We have developed this using Avr Atmega8 microcontroller. We have given the complete circuit diagram, software codes and other necessary information to make this project a reality.
Note:- If you have any doubts, please ask in the comments section of the corresponding post 3. Digital Voltmeter using Microcontroller — AT89S51 In this project, you can make a simple digital voltmeter application which can measure up to 5 volts 0 to 5 volts. The output is displayed using two 7 segment displays.
The software is developed in assembly language. Electronic Project Kits for Engineering Students The following project kits are available for download from our store;.Port pins P3. There is no need of connecting external freewheeling diodes across relays as inbuilt diodes are provided in ULN ICs.
The higher six bits D7 through D2 of this command are always Miscellaneous: When the voltage reaches WhatsApp Advertisement Hardware engineers out there can not ignore the importance of learning electronics as a subject. When the battery voltage drops below 10 volts.