# UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLIC LOGIC KLENK PDF

Virginia Klenk - Understanding Symbolic Logic - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Understanding Symbolic Logic by Virginia Klenk, April 19, , Prentice Hall edition, Paperback in English - 5 edition. This comprehensive introduction presents the fundamentals of symbolic logic clearly, systematically, and in a straightforward style accessible to readers.

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Download Now: presinescinmett.tk?book= [txt] Understanding Symbolic Logic Ebook #ebook #full #read #pdf. Download Understanding Symbolic Logic PDF File; 2. Book Details Author: Virginia Klenk Ph.D. Pages: Binding: Paperback Brand: ISBN. Download in library understanding symbolic logic 5th edition or read online understanding symbolic logic klenk answers pdf essentials of symbolic logic.

Inferring is a process of going from what we do know the premises to what we previously didn't know the conclusion ; it is a way of expanding our knowledge, and it is very important that we understand how to do this correctly. If the Pentagon incorrectly infers, for instance, that spots on the radar are enemy missiles, rather than geese, we may all be annihilated.

Unit 1 Introduction to Logic Logic is primarily about inferring, about reasoning; in particular, it is the study of what constitutes correct reasoning. In this introductory unit you will learn what reasoning is, the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning, a preliminary definition of a valid deductive argument, and the crucial role of the concept ofform in the study oflogic.

The last two sections contain a discussion of the role of symbols in logic and a general overview of the discipline of symbolic logic. Learn the definitions at the end of the unit. Why Study logic? To take first things first, why should you be taking a course in symbolic logic? What aside from fulfilling a requirement can you expect to get out of it? Will it really teach you to think logically, and is there any advantage in that? Isn't it better, perhaps, to be spontaneous, intuitive, perceptive?

Well, in the first place, there need be no conflict between intuition and logic; intuition and perception are appropriate in certain sorts of situations, for instance, in creating or appreciating a work of art, and logic is necessary in other situations, for instance, in figuring out the instructions on your income tax return. What you may not realize is that you are using logic, that is, reasoning, continually. Every time you draw a conclusion on the basis of certain evidence, infer one thing from another, or try to figure out the consequences of a certain course of action, you are using logic.

Logic is a matter of what follows from what, and the better you are at figuring this out-that is, the better you are at reasoning correctly-the more likely you are to come up with the right decision in practical situations. Let us look at a few examples. You will do well on the LSATs only if you have a course in logic, but a course in logic will lower your grade point average to below 3.

Can you get into law school? However, you may only claim your child as a dependent if he or she is either under 19 years of age or Unit 1 Introduction to Logic is both under age 25 and a full-time student. Or suppose you are on a jury and the following evidence has been presented: the defendant could not have committed the murder unless he had the cash to hire someone or was in possession of both a car and a gun.

Furthermore, he would not have committed the crime unless he was either drunk or on drugs.

But he never touches drugs and he did not have a gun. Is the defense attorney right in asserting that the defendant could not have committed the crime? It is in situations like this that logic is indispensable; we need to reason our way through to a decision, and the better we are at reasoning, the better our decisions will be.

## Virginia Klenk - Understanding Symbolic Logic

But will taking a course in logic really improve your reasoning ability? It should, in at least two important respects. In the first place, you will learn to recognize and use certain very common forms of correct logical inference, and you will come to recognize and avoid certain common logical errors.

For instance, if all conservatives oppose gun control, and John is infavor of gun control, you can correctly infer that John is not a conservative. Suppose David opposes gun control. Can you infer that he is a conservative? Many people would, but this would be a mistake; the premises don't say that conservatives are the only people who oppose gun control, just that they all do. It is quite possible that there are many others, from all parts of the political spectrum, who also oppose gun control.

This erroneous inference involves a very common fallacy, and once you become aware of such logical mistakes, you should be able to avoid them. In the second place, logic should increase your ability to construct extended chains of reasoning and to deal with more complex problems. A good example of this occurs in chess, where success depends in large part on the ability to think ahead, to plan moves several steps in advance.

Such situations occur as well in real life; you may have to consider a number of options, consequences of each of those options, and consequences of the consequences. The more clearheaded you can be about these inferences, the better the decisions you will be able to make, and what you learn in logic should help you with this sort of complex reasoning. In addition to the practical advantages of learning to reason more effectively, however, there is also a theoretical side to the study of logic.

You will be learning not just how to reason correctly, but also why certain forms of inference are correct and others incorrect. It would hardly be appropriate in a course designed to help you learn to think things through to tell you to take it all on authority; if you really learn to think logically, you will certainly want to be asking why things are done in a certain way. You may, in the end, not accept all the presuppositions of modern symbolic logic logic is not as cut and dried as you may think , but at least you should have a good understanding of why they are accepted by so many logicians.

Unit 1 Introduction to Logic 2. What logic Is All About You have just learned that logic is about reasoning, inferring one thing from another, but we need to be somewhat more precise than this. For one thing, it would not do to say that logic is about the reasoning processes that go on in your head, since these are not directly observable by anyone else, and we have, in fact, no way of really knowing what goes on there.

## Virginia Klenk - Understanding Symbolic Logic

Rather, we must say that logic is concerned with the verbal expression of reasoning, since this is the only thing that is publicly ascertainable. The term that we will use for this verbal expression of reasoning is argument. An argument, for purposes of logic, is not a quarrel or disagreement, but rather a set of sentences consisting of one or more premises, which contain the evidence, and a conclusion, which is supposed to follow from the premises.

Simply making a statement, or expressing an opinion or belief, is not an argument.

An argument must contain not only the statement being made, but also the reasons, the evidence for the assertion; the claim must be backed up. The following is an argument: "Because John watched TV all night instead of studying, he will fail the logic exam, since it is impossible to pass logic exams without studying.

As noted earlier, the premises of an argument are the sentences or clauses containing the evidence, while the conclusion is the claim that is supposed to follow from the premises.

Often, though not always, the conclusion of an argument will be preceded by a word such as "therefore," "so," or "thus. Note that in many cases, the intended conclusion is not the last clause.

Note also that not all the arguments are good arguments. In general, you will have to analyze arguments to determine what are premises and what is the intended conclusion.

## If You're a Student

Exercise 1 at the end of the unit will give you practice in identifying arguments and picking out their premises and conclusion. An example might be "It is going to snow, since the temperature is dropping and heavy clouds are moving in.

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Unit 1 Introduction to Logic My new car won't need any repairs for at least two years. My lucky numbers are 3, 17,27,35, and My new car won't need many repairs, since it's a Subaru and all the consumer magazines say Subarus are very reliable. My fortune cookie said my lucky numbers are 3, 17, 27, 35, and 43, so I'm going to win the lottery, since I bought a ticket with those numbers.

An argument can, of course, be spoken as well as written, and the principles of logic apply equally well to any expression of reasoning, but for obvious reasons we will here be concerned primarily with written arguments.

In logic it is customary to write an argument with premises above a line and conclusion below, and the sign "I.

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John did not study hard for this exam. John will not get an A on this exam. This is still not enough for a definition of logic, however, for it does not tell us what we are supposed to do with arguments.

Just write them down? Count the number of words? Admire the calligraphy or typesetting? Try them out on our friends? Do experiments to determine which arguments people think are good or which they use most frequently? Try to figure out the psychological reasons why people argue as they do? None of this is the province of logic. The only thing logic is concerned with is whether arguments are good or bad, correct or incorrect.

Logic is a normative enterprise; its job is to evaluate arguments, and this is primarily what you will be learning in this course. What does it mean, then, for an argument to be good or bad, correct or incorrect? What are the grounds on which we evaluate arguments?

The answer is somewhat complex, and you will not fully understand for several more units, but we may begin by noting that in an argument, a claim is being made that there is some sort of evidential relationship between premises and conclusion: the conclusion is supposed to follow from the premises, or, equivalently, the premises are supposed to imply the conclusion.

This indicates that the correctness of an argument is a matter of the connection between premises and conclusion and concerns the strength of the relation between them. Solutions Manuals are available for thousands of the most popular college and high school textbooks in subjects such as Math, Science Physics , Chemistry , Biology , Engineering Mechanical , Electrical , Civil , Business and more.

It's easier to figure out tough problems faster using Chegg Study. Unlike static PDF Understanding Symbolic Logic solution manuals or printed answer keys, our experts show you how to solve each problem step-by-step. No need to wait for office hours or assignments to be graded to find out where you took a wrong turn.

You can check your reasoning as you tackle a problem using our interactive solutions viewer. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available.

How is Chegg Study better than a printed Understanding Symbolic Logic student solution manual from the bookstore? We will learn how to symbolize arguments within these logical systems, and to develop proofs using the rules of these systems.

Additionally, we will learn important logical concepts such as consistency, equivalence, and contingency.

Homework assignments will be assigned the class session before they are due. So, you will need to attend class both to get the assignment and then to turn it in. Homework will be collected intermittently.

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This means that while understanding the basic concepts of logic is important, mastering the skills through practice is essential. Moreover, the skills developed in logic are interrelated and build upon one another.Most of our knowledge is inferential; that is, it is gained not through direct observation, but by inferring one thing from another. And, just as two houses built from the same blueprint may look very different when finished and furnished, so two arguments with the same form may refer to totally different things and have totally different meanings.

Such arguments are called inductive and will be discussed in the next section. An example might be "It is going to snow, since the temperature is dropping and heavy clouds are moving in.

## Understanding Symbolic Logic Solutions Manual

In a valid deductive argument, we have the strongest conceivable kind of logical relationship: true premises, one might say, force the conclusion to be true; that is, it would be absolutely impossible to have all the premises true with the conclusion false. Features How do you ensure that your students understand symbolic logic? An example would be: John is a bachelor.

The Rules of Existential Instantiation E.