Computer Science and Technology provides overviews and important facts . Page, Larry. PDF (Portable Document Format) data dictionary. Dictionary of computer and Internet terms / Douglas A. Downing,. Michael of Java Programming the Easy Way and Dictionary of Mathematics Terms, published. This dictionary contains over 32, terms that are specific to Computers and .. ABAP (PN)~ A programming language for developing applications for the SAP.
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Dictionary of Computer Terms. The fifth edition of the Microsoft Computer Dictionary has been revised and all data registers work the same way, makes programming it also includes tools such as Distiller (which creates PDF files from. Here is a very simple glossary of computer science terms. In some cases a narrow . that indicates the type of the file such as pdf, jpg, txt, etc. In , when IBM publicly introduced the first mass produced, electric computer, they never would have imagined that computers would advance to what they.
Programmers type their programs in a programming language. Just like English, a programming language also has its own set of rules, or syntax. Programming Paradigms Just as there are many different spoken languages that humans communicate in, there are also many different programming languages programmers use to create programs.
A programmer who knows several different programming languages will select the most appropriate programming language to use in each particular circumstance. For instance, there are programming languages that are more suitable for web development making websites and there are others that are more suitable for mobile development making smartphone apps.
In addition to specifics such as the type of development, at a more granular level, programming languages are classified into different programming paradigms.
A paradigm is a mindset. A programming paradigm is a way of classifying a programming language based on the style or methodology of programming. Here are a few common types of programming paradigms: The functional programming paradigm The imperative programming paradigm The object-oriented programming paradigm As an example, Java and C are examples of programming languages.
The Java programming language is an example of an object-oriented programming language. The C programming language is an example of a procedural programming language. However, it just helps to understand that there are different classifications for the various programming languages.
A programmer writes code to create a program. A program is simply an application that does something, or achieves some goal, when the user of the application launches it. As the programmer, your goal is determine what you want your code to do, and to write the code.
When you want to write an essay, you use a computer application such as Word or any text editor. You simply open the text editor application, create a file, type in some text, and save your document in the desired file format, such as. The process of writing code is similar. An IDE is a computer application that contains all the tools you need to program, such as a text editor, a compiler, a runtime environment, and a debugger.
A debugger is a tool that programmers use to find mistakes in their code, called bugs. For instance, A bug may either prevent a program from compiling, prevent a program executing running , or may cause a program to produce incorrect values.
Learning how to debug a program is a skill that you will develop over the course of your professional life.
After you create your program, you must save your code within a file, called a source file. Saving your code within a source file requires naming the file with a root name and an extension.
The root name is the unique name you choose to give your file, which is comprised of the characters appearing to the left of the dot. You give the source file the extension expected according to the programming language of your source code. For instance, the extension. A word typed would contain a number of characters.
Check box: A small box that may represent choices or options for different settings. If a check box is selected, a cross or a tick will appear in the box. This can either change or choose some setting or preference.
Clear: A command to clear or delete information. CLI: Command Line Interface is when you input text based commands to control the computer as opposed to using graphical user interface GUI , which is graphics based commands. Click: By default, to click is to press the left mouse button once. You can make the computer obey commands by clicking on certain items on a computer. For example you can click on a folder to open it.
There are different variations to a click including double click, single click, and right click. Clipboard: When you copy a file, word, picture, or anything on your computer, it is stored on a clipboard until you paste it somewhere or copy over it. For example if you copy a photo from the pictures folder and move to another folder, look around for a while, then paste it into my documents, the file was on the clipboard the entire time. Even if you have pasted it the file is there until you copy another file to the clipboard to overwrite it.
A piece of software or a device that adds support to programs so they can play certain audio and video files. It converts them into a format that your media player will understand.
Some software may include the required codecs. Column: A vertical row in a table running up and down. A simple row runs horizontal. Command: An instruction to perform a task. You can type a command into the run box or you can choose one from the many menus in Windows. Copy, paste, cut, open, undo, are all examples of commands available from a menu. Command Button: A button you can press that will perform a command or action for you.
For example we often have to press the OK button or the save button. Compatible: Software, devices, and computer components that can work together without problems are compatible.
Compress: To compress something is to make it smaller. This can be done with computer files. Compressing a file to store saves space. Computer: A general term for all the included components that make up a computer. When people say the word computer they generally mean the whole system.
Computer Terms Dictionary – A To Z Computer Meanings PDF Download
Configuration: The setup of something on your computer. It could be how to have configured settings in a software program to suit you. Or it could be how your computer system is configured to boot. How is it set. Contacts: Usually a list of names, email addresses, or phone numbers. Most people store email addresses in a contact list because they can be hard to remember when you have hundreds.
Control Panel: Where most system settings are stored for you to configure. You can access the control panel from the Windows start menu. When in the control panel you can press on an icon to see that areas customizable settings.
Cookie: A text information message that is stored on your computer when you visit a web page. When you return to the page the cookie is used to recognize you. Copy: To duplicate information. You can copy a file and paste it to another location; however the original will remain intact in its previous position. Unlike cut, where the original is removed from its location and pasted elsewhere. It is a chip attached to the motherboard and controls and calculates data and is a vital part of your computer.
Sometimes known as the Processor, the CPU comes in different speeds. I have a 2. Crack: An illegally altered file that is made in order to steal a software program. A crack can make a trial version into a fully paid version without paying, therefore stealing the product.
Sometimes an illegally obtained serial number is also used to crack a program. Crash: A problem that occurs in the hardware or software that causes the computer to freeze up or stop functioning. CTRL: Stands for control button. Found on both sides, bottom left and right, of the keyboard. Used to perform special functions such as selecting all Ctrl-A. Cursor: The pointer, usually an arrow or line, which is controlled by the computer mouse.
When you move your mouse the cursor moves on your computer screen. Where ever it is placed in a text document is where the next letter can be typed. Cut: To remove a folder, file, graphics, or text from its original location with the intention of pasting it to another location.
Cyberbullying: This is very similar to bullying at school however the bullying takes place online. Cyberspace: Refers to the Internet world out there. When you are online you might browse through Cyberspace.
D Data: A collection of facts, information, photos, text, anything, on a computer or on the internet. Database: A Database is a structured collection of data that is stored on a computer or server, the most used model of database is a relational database. Data Compression: Compressing data so it does not take as long to transfer from one place to another.
For example data is compressed when you upload a file to the internet because this file is usually travelling through cables and phone lines. Debugging: Locating bugs defects and problems in a software program to repair and eliminate them. Decryption: What you do when you decrypt something. This could be removing a security password or breaking a code to get access. Default Search Provider: A default search provider is a search provider that you have chosen to use through your browser.
For example in Internet Explorer when you first set the program up it asks you to choose a default search provider. Default Settings: A preset condition in something. For example in Windows a picture will by default be saved to the pictures folder on your computer. All programs and websites have default settings to start with and remain there until you choose to change these settings.
Defragmentation: Defragmentation re-allocates all files and compacts then into a neat, organized sections together therefore removing wasted space between the individual files. This brings the frequently used files to an area for easier and more efficient access and therefore making your computer run faster.
Defrag: To use a defragmentation tool to defrag your computer files.
This word was computer slang but now it may be the only word used for defragmentation. Delete file or folder: To remove a file or folder from your computer, which frees up space on your hard drive. To delete a file simply right click on it and choose delete.
Delete text: To delete text you can simple place your cursor on a word and press the backspace key. You can also select text by making it blue, and then pressing delete on your keyboard. You cannot delete text from a document you do not have access to. For example you cannot delete text from an article on webpage but you could delete text from a form you are filling out online. Descending sort: Sorting records or lists from Z to A. Desktop: It is everything you see when you start your computer except the taskbar.
Your desktop has the icons on it that are shortcuts to programs and folders. Desktop computer: A desktop computer was originally a computer that was built to be on top of a desktop. However now a desktop computer can be any computer that is not portable like a laptop.
Device: A device is a part of the computer or an add on that performs a particular task. Device Driver: A piece of software, which tells the operating system how to use a particular device. Each device needs Software to make it run.
Sometimes drivers are automatically installed, however other add on devices may require you to install driver software. For example a printer comes with drivers on a printer disc. Dialogue Box: A dialog box can display on your computer screen and gives the user options to choose from or enter information into.
For example if you open your systems properties box you can change settings and open more dialog boxes for each different section. Disk or Disc: A Disk is a magnetic drive such as a hard drive and a Disc is where the data is stored using lasers, like a cd drive puts data on a Cd disc.
The cd disc is also has a disc shape. See the difference between disk and disc. Disk Drive: A Disk Drive is a device for computer storage it normally stores the Operating System and other important files like images and documents by using a mechanical arm which records data to disks and also retrieves the data when requested as well.
Disc Drive: This is where you put a cd disc in to copy to or read the disc. A disc drive reads and burns data to a cd disc by using lasers. Can also be known as a CD drive or burner. Diskette: Also known as a floppy disk. A floppy disk is old technology that held a small amount of data on a magnetic tape inside the disk shell. The data was transferred by a floppy disk drive. Document: Usually refers to some type of formatted information that contains text, tables, or forms.
For example you create a document when you write a letter in Microsoft word. Domain: On a local network the Domain is a group of computers that is run by at least one server domain server so that a set of policies computer rules telling the computer who is allowed to do what is permeated passed throughout the whole network in a quick and easy fashion.
Dos: Disc operating system. Invented by IBM. This is the basic command system on your computer. It still exists in some form even though Windows operating system seems to be the only thing on your computer. When you go to the command line and type a command this is through dos. Double-click: To left click your mouse on something on your computer two times.
For example you have to double-click on a desktop icon to open a program. Download: To download something is to get it from the internet to your computer through your internet connection. For example, when you receive email to your computer the new emails are downloaded from your mail server.
Now days people download everything including documents, information, music files, movies, games, cracks, cheats, and more.. To upload is the opposite of download. Drag: To drag something across the computer screen. For example you could drag a photo from the pictures folder onto the desktop. Simply select the file, by making it blue, but keep the left mouse button pressed in while you move the file to where you want.
Drag-and drop: Usually refers to dragging a file and then dropping it to another location. In some programs you Drive Letter: A drive letter is an assigned alphabetical letter to a disk or logical drive, the reason for this is to allow an organized file system, there are drives which are automatically assigned certain letters like the old 3.
Drop Down Arrow: In Windows various applications and even websites have a drop down arrow, and if pressed will reveal a menu of choices. The arrow is facing down. E Edit: Meaning to alter, improve or change an original document, image, video, sound or any other digital file.
Editing is the modification of data. E-mail: Electronic mail A document or message sent to an email server to deliver to a recipient over the internet.
Email Client: An email client is a program that lets you read, create emails, send, reply to, read, and manage your emails. Email Signature: An email signature is a bit of personalized text such as your contact information or a favorite quote that is automatically inserted at the bottom of every message you send.
Email Server: An email server collects your email and delivers it to your chosen email client. Same with sending an email. It gets taken to the email server to distribute to the appropriate email recipient. It is a bit like a post office in the real world and the email client is your letter box.
Embed: To merge data or files together to become one package. For example you might embed an uncommon font type into a word document.
This way when the document is opened on a foreign computer it will still contain the font. Emoticons: Because people cannot always see you when chatting on the internet we have symbols and pictures that relay our emotions. If you type this : it means you are smiling or happy. Sometimes when you type this a program will convert it to a smiley face icon. Ergonomic office chair: This refers to a chair purposely designed to fit the comfort needs of the user with considerations such as surrounding environment taken into account.
Ethernet: A LAN local area network connection method.
Plugging an Ethernet cable usually blue from a computers Ethernet port to a modem usually connects you to the internet. Therefore you have and Ethernet connection. When you install a program and press accept you are agreeing to these terms. Execute: Usually to start or perform something. Either to start a program or to carry out an action. A file that can execute something usually has the file extension like. Execution file: A file with.
When you press on a. Export: To remove a copy of information from a program that can be imported back at a later date. It could also be imported into a suitably compatible program. For example you can export your contacts list from Outlook Express and import it to Thunderbird. Extensions: A file extension identifies labels a file and lets you know what program will open it.
For example a file with. A file with. E-zine: An online magazine that is either published on the internet or delivered by email. F FAQ: Short for frequently asked questions. Function keys: Keys on a keyboard that give special commands to the computer. For example you can press the F1 key to bring up a help menu. Function keys are usually at the top of the keyboard. It can also be displayed in the address bar in your browser, next to the URL of the webpage. File: In the old days a file used to be a section category that was kept in a filing cabinet, however now we have less paper to file away.
Now the term file can mean anything on your computer. Everything on your computer is made up of files. Folders and directories have files stored in them. Programs are made up of certain files that make the programs work.
A file on a computer can mean any file unless you specify which type. For example there are music files, picture files, system files, and so on. File Extension: A file extension classifies what category a file falls into. If it has. File name: The name assigned to a file. File transfer protocol: Abbreviated to FTP. This is a network protocol that states how a file can be transferred to another computer. For example you will have to use a FTP client to upload files to a web server.
The files will be manipulated and standardized to be compatible with the other computer.
Firewall: A personal firewall is a computer program that protects your computer from malicious users by blocking incoming and outgoing unauthorized access. Windows Xp comes with a built in firewall. You can find it in the control panel under the security section. Filters: Can refer to a couple of different aspects in computing, It can refer to an Email Filter which is used to process emails and organize it to specified criteria, the most general criteria is usually to delete or send suspected spam emails to a spam folder instead of your inbox.
Folder: A Folder on a computer is used to store groups of files and other folders in an organized fashion, folders can be created by the user to make files easier to find similar to an alphabetized filing system in a cabinet or telephone directory. Font: A text type that you can apply to text.
For example you can make text Tahoma, 12pt, bold or maybe Arial, 10pt, italic. Footer: A space at the bottom of a document where you can place text or page numbers.
If your document has more than one page the footer text can be repeated on every page. Footnote: A footnote is a snippet of text that is placed at the side or bottom of a page and refers to a piece of text in a document. It is like adding extra notes or explanations to different areas in a document Format: Hard drive, re-writeable disks to clear of all data. Clean to the original state of empty.
A hard drive has to be formatted and partitioned to install an operating system. It can also mean to format text by changing the font, color and size. Format text: It can also mean to format text by changing the font, color and size. Forward: Forward is an option found in an e-mail client, which allows you to forward a received e-mail to another recipient?
Forum: This is a member based website, usually free to join, where people gather to chat and converse on a particular subject. Forums can be used as a very useful learning tool for most subjects as people share their knowledge and experiences with others.
You can find computer help forums, money saving forums, child birth forums, and more.. Floppy Disks: A form of old data storage that held data on magnetic tape. The disk was also referred to as a 3. Freeware: Copyrighted software that is available for use without charge. It is not a trialware or shareware, it is completely free. G Gamer: A Gamer refers to someone who plays video games either on a computer or console it could also include board games as well.
Glitch: A hardware problem much like a software bug, that causes a computer to malfunction. Google: The number one search engine on the planet. Graphics: Usually anything that is displayed by the computer is known as a graphic display graph because it uses a pixel graph to place colors.
Graphics Accelerator: Computer display device specially configured to provide enhanced performance.
Graphics Card: An add-on component that can be installed into your computer to improve or enhance graphics that you see. This facility can also be built in and is then know as onboard graphics. Graphics Driver: A small piece of software needed to run both onboard graphics and a graphics card. Graphic File: A picture or image file that has been stored digitally onto your computer.
GUI: graphical user interface. This is when a computer user presses on icons, uses menus, or other graphical features to perform commands on a computer. This is the opposite to manually typing in difficult commands. See the opposite CLI. H Hardware: The basic parts that make up your computer.
The motherboard, hard drive, memory, etc. Hard drive: A hard drive is the storage component of your computer. It is the only place you can save a file to. You can add on an external hard drive or a flash pen drive for extra space. See the different drives of a computer. Hard disk: A magnetic storage device that stores large amounts of data.
Otherwise known as a hard drive. A compact disc stores data by writing to the disc with lasers. Header: Repetitive information that appears at the top of every page of a document. See the header at the top of this page. Highlight: To select something by making it blue.
You can left click once on a file or left click at the start of text, holding the button in to select the text you want.
After you have selected something you can copy, cut, move, delete, and more. If you right click on something that is highlighted you will see a menu.
Hit: A hit in website talk is equal to one visit to a website. For example Tips4pc gets over 5, hits a day. Home page: The main page for a Web site which is classed as the entrance to a bigger series of related web pages. Html: hyper text markup language This is coding used to develop webpages.
You can start from scratch, writing html or you can use a html editor like Frontpage that has a template to start with. I Icon: A graphic symbol for an application, file or folder. There are icons that you can use to open applications on your desktop. There are also icons in your taskbar, control panel, and more.. Install: In computer terms it is referring to installing a software program onto your computer.
It can be incorporated into html or other web page languages to create a desired effect. K Keyboard: A device that enables you to communicate with a computer. For example you can write a letter by pressing on the keys of a keyboard.
Dictionary of Information Technology
Keypad: The set of numbers on the right hand side of the keyboard. For example an office or home network. Landscape: To position a page in landscape position makes the longest measurement the width and the shortest the height of the page.
As opposed to portrait page layout which has the page in normal upright position. Left Click: To press on the left mouse button once. To double click is to press on the left mouse button twice. LCD: Liquid crystal display. Line spacing: The space or set measurement that is between two lines of text. For example the space between these lines you are reading now. Log Off: This can also be named log out, referring to the opposite of log on.
To exit and sign out. To log off out of your user account. Log On: Log On refers to a user logging on or signing in to a computer system or website account, it is a form of security measure where the user is identified by a username and password, it is used so the user can obtain access to the system.
M Macro: A macro is a stored set of keystrokes or commands that will enable the user to save and repeat common tasks. For example you can a macro in Microsoft word. When a macro is added to a document it carries out the set of instructions.
Mailing list: A list of email addresses collected with a particular topic in common. People on the mailing list will receive updates and information about that topic.
For example Tips4pc. Message Rules: Rules that you can set in Outlook Express to filter your email messages. Motherboard: The central circuit board that provides electrical connections so the other components of a computer can communicate with each other.
It is the main part to a computer. Everything is connected to it. Monitor: The screen you view your running computer on. This is where you will see the login screen and the desktop. Media Devices: Media Devices are a general term for an electronic device which stores and plays Music, Photos or Videos, Media Devices are normally connected to a computer for Music, Photo and Video Files to be transferred to the device, although some media devices like an iPhone and other Smart Phones include Internet Access for an Application Store or Media Store which allows files to be transferred directly to the device.
Media Player: Can refer to a few things including a Media Device which stores and plays media files like Music and Videos explained more above , and Media Player software which will organize, hold and play media files on a computer some of the main ones are Windows Media Player which is preloaded on Windows Systems and QuickTime Player which is preloaded on Mac OS Systems. Modem: This is a device which modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information and can demodulate a carrier signal as well to decode the information, so it allows for the transfer of digital data across phone lines where if the digital data was kept in its original format it could not be transferred across the phone lines.
Ms-dos is the original operating system. Although it looked nothing like windows as it was text based and all commands had to be typed in. You had to know the basic command lines and language to do this. Multimedia: Information that is presented using more than one media type. For example a program might contain video, sound, graphics, and text. Multimedia computer: This is a computer equipped to handle multimedia applications and programs.
For example the computer should have a graphics accelerator, a sound card, speakers, and anything else that helps enhance the multimedia experience. N Net: Short for the internet. Netiquette: Manners to use for the internet, derived from the word etiquette. Network: A group of computers connected together either by cables or an internet connection. This allows them to share things such as information, files, and more. Norton Antivirus: Antivirus protection program that is available to download.
This is the most well known Virus program out there. Notebook Computer: A portable computer fully self-contained.
Intro to Computer Science Terminology
Also known as a laptop computer. Notebooks can operate from batteries or AC Power unlike a desktop computer. Notification area: This is the area of a windows taskbar in the right bottom corner that displays important information, such as the time, the network connection icon, sound icon, etc. Balloon notifications will popup if there are any updates or problems. This form of file system is no longer new, however it is still used for all operating systems from Windows onwards.
The FAT file system mostly only exists on usb flash drives. NTFS offers improved security, use of less disk space, and other features.
Numbered List: A list in point form that is numbered sequentially as the steps are listed. The first point would be numbered one and the next two and so on. O OCR: Optical character reader. A device used to scan text from a document to a computer so it can be edited, stored, or reprinted at a later date.
For example you could scan a printed book into your computer and the text will be there for you to edit and change. Offline: To be offline is to not be connected to the internet or to not be on the internet. Online: You go online to browse the internet.
Open file: To bring a file out of storage and into the computers memory for use. For example you can open a file by double clicking on it. You can also open programs by double clicking on icons on the desktop. Organic Search: Search results in a search engine that that come up naturally and are not paid advertisements.
The paid adverts are usually at the top and to the right of the organic results. OS: Operating System Is the main program that runs your computer. Windows is probably the most popular. OSK: On screen keyboard. Windows has a built in OSK. You can type OSK in the run command window and it will appear. Output: When you command your computer to perform a task, the resulting operation is the output.
For example you might request that your computer saves a document or maybe prints it. Saving and Printing is the result of this computer operation and therefore is the output. Overwrite: When you save a file in the same location as another file, if the filenames are identical, you will overwrite the previous version of the file. To avoid overwriting the original file you need to give the files different names. Then it is ok to store them in the same location.
This measures the number of times a webpage is visited. This is also a broad term and can be further categorized into unique visitors and page loads. Parental Controls: Parental Controls are options which can be set by a parent to monitor and limit what their child can view or do on the computer as well as limiting the time they can spend on it.
Partition: A section of your hard drive after it has been subdivided into two or more sections. Separate partitions are labeled as different drives. For example you can partition your GB hard drive into two GB hard drives and name one C: drive and the other D: drive.
Passwords: A password is security measure that people use to identify themselves. A password can prove that it is in fact you signing in to your email account, website login area, or even your computer.
A password can be made up of a combination of letters, numbers, or even characters. Path: A Path specifies a unique location of a file on a computer. In other words it is an address of where a file is stored. This is the path. Peripherals: Peripherals are those pieces of hardware that you add on to your computer. For example a mouse, keyboard, modem, monitor, etc. PCI: peripheral component interconnect These are slots on the motherboard, usually white, where you can add cards onto your computer.
You can add soundcards, internal modems, TV cards, and more… Power Supply: This is a component of the computer that supplies power to all of the other components. You plug power into the back of the computer. Commonly used to take photographs of the screen.
Paste: A command that transfers information from a clipboard, where it has been stored temporarily, and inserts it in another location. For example you can copy a file and paste it into another location on the computer. Patch: A small add-on to a program that improves on the original piece of software.
For example a patch for a program may be needed to repair an error that occurs when using the program. PC: Short for personal computer. This usually refers to a computer used for personal use only.This is to use instead of a mouse.
Each line of the file is a data record. Google: The number one search engine on the planet. Now days there is a utility program for everything. You can type OSK in the run command window and it will appear.
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